EXECUTIVE ORDER NO. 533
ADOPTING INTEGRATED COASTAL MANAGEMENT AS A NATIONAL STRATEGY TO ENSURE THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT OF THE COUNTRY’S COASTAL AND MARINE ENVIRONMENT AND RESOURCES AND ESTABLISHING SUPPORTING MECHANISMS FOR ITS IMPLEMENTATION
WHEREAS, the Philippines is an archipelagic state of more than 7,100 islands with a vast coastline and rich coastal and marine areas noted to be among the most important and biologically diverse in the world;
WHEREAS, coastal and marine areas are vital sources of food, minerals and raw materials, as well as natural setting for sports, recreation, and other social and cultural activities;
WHEREAS, marine-related economic activities, including fisheries, marine transportation, tourism, coastal mining, and offshore oil and gas development make significant contributions to the country’s GDP as well as provide livelihood and employment opportunities to coastal communities;
WHEREAS, current trends in coastal migration and increasing human activities on land, coasts and seas exert pressure on the sustaining capacity of marine areas as well as amplify the risks of environmental degradation, destruction of vital coastal habitats, loss of marine biological diversity, and deterioration of near shore water quality;
WHEREAS, the prevailing single-sector approach to coastal and marine management has set up jurisdictional divides among sectors and government agencies, exacerbating conflicts, which result in inefficient and unsustainable use of resources;
WHEREAS, the potential benefits of the country’s rich marine resources have not been fully realized due to multiple use conflicts, limited funding and insufficient capacity;
WHEREAS, Article II, Sections 15 and 16 of the Constitution provide that the State shall protect and promote the right to health of the people as well as their right to a healthful and balanced ecology in accord with the rhythm and harmony of nature;
WHEREAS, Article XII, Section 2 of the Constitution provides that the State shall protect the nation’s marine wealth and exclusive economic zone and reserve its use and enjoyment exclusively to Filipino citizens;
WHEREAS, Article II, Section 10 of the Constitution provides further that the State shall promote social justice in all phases of national development;
WHEREAS, Article XIII, Section 7 of the Constitution provides that the State shall protect the rights of subsistence fishermen, especially local communities, to the preferential use of the communal marine and fishing resources, both inland and offshore and provide support to such fishermen through appropriate technology and research and other services;
WHEREAS, Article XIII, Section 16 of the Constitution recognizes the right of the people and their organizations to effective and reasonable participation at all levels of social, political, and economic decision making and provides that the State shall, by law, facilitate the establishment of adequate consultation mechanisms;
WHEREAS, due to the complexity of environmental issues and the variety of sectors benefiting from the coastal and marine resources, there is a need to adopt an innovative approach that will address environmental as well as socio-economic issues in a comprehensive and integrated manner in order to promote optimum resource utilization and sustainable coastal and marine development;
WHEREAS, integrated coastal management is a dynamic process of planning and management involving stakeholders, and requiring the analysis of the environmental and socioeconomic implications of development, the ecosystem processes, and the interrelationships among land-based and marine-related activities across jurisdictions;
WHEREAS, integrated coastal management is recognized as an effective approach to sustainable coastal and marine development with demonstrated benefits in enhancing economic growth, ecosystem protection, promotion of social equity, and the quality of life of the people;
WHEREAS, the Philippines is a party to many international agreements on seas and oceans, principally, the Convention on the Law of the Sea, Convention on Biological Diversity, and Convention on the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, as well as non-binding instruments such as the Rio Declaration and Agenda 21, which promote integrated and sustainable coastal management;
WHEREAS, one of the UN Millennium Development Goals is to ensure environmental sustainability by integrating the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes and reversing the loss of environmental resources;
WHEREAS, the Plan of Implementation of the World Summit on Sustainable Development promotes integrated, multi-disciplinary and multi-sectoral coastal and ocean management at the national level;
WHEREAS, the Philippines is committed to implement the Sustainable Development Strategy for the Seas of East Asia, which requires concerted efforts towards integrated coastal and ocean management;
NOW, THEREFORE, I, GLORIA MACAPAGAL-ARROYO, President of the Philippines, by virtue of the powers vested in me by the Constitution and by law, do hereby order:
SECTION 1. Integrated Coastal Management (ICM) Policy. ICM and related approaches, such as coastal resource management or coastal zone management, shall be the national management policy framework to promote the sustainable development of the country’s coastal and marine environment and resources in order to achieve food security, sustainable livelihood, poverty alleviation and reduction of vulnerability to natural hazards, while preserving ecological integrity.
SEC. 2. Scope and Coverage. ICM shall be implemented in all coastal and marine areas, addressing the inter-linkages among associated watersheds, estuaries and wetlands, and coastal seas, by all relevant national and local agencies.
SEC. 3. Development of a National ICM Programme. A National ICM Programme shall be developed by the DENR, in consultation with other concerned agencies, sectors, and stakeholders, within one year from the effectivity of this Order to provide direction, support and guidance to the local government units (LGUs) and stakeholders in the development and implementation of their local ICM programmes. The National ICM Programme shall include principles, strategies, and action plans identified after balancing national development priorities with local concerns, define national ICM targets and develop a national ICM coordinating mechanism.
SEC. 4. Implementation of ICM Programmes. The implementation of ICM programmes shall take into account the following elements:
an interagency, multi-sectoral mechanism to coordinate the efforts of different agencies, sectors and administrative levels;
b. coastal strategies and action plans that provide a long term vision and strategy for sustainable development of the coastal area, and a fixed term programme of actions for addressing priority issues and concerns;
public awareness programmes to increase the level of understanding of, and appreciation for, the coastal and marine resources of the area, and to promote a shared responsibility among stakeholders in the planning and implementation of the ICM programme;
d. mainstreaming ICM programmes into the national and local governments’ planning and socio-economic development programmes and allocating adequate financial and human resources for implementation;
e. capacity building programmes to enhance required human resource skills, scientific input to policy and planning processes, and enforcement mechanisms to ensure compliance with adopted rules and regulations;
f. integrated environmental monitoring for the purpose of measuring the status, progress and impacts of management programmes against sustainable development indicators, as may be established, and for use in decision-making, public awareness, and performance evaluation; and
g. investment opportunities and sustainable financing mechanisms for environmental protection and improvement and resource conservation.
ICM programmes shall promote the application of best practices, such as, but not limited to:
a. Coastal and marine use zonation as a management tool;
b. Sustainable fisheries and conservation of living resources;
c. Protection and rehabilitation of coral reefs, mangroves, seagrass, estuaries and other habitats, particularly through implementation of marine protected areas, nature reserves and sanctuaries;
d. Development of upland, watershed, catchment areas and basin wide management approaches;
e. Integrated waste management, including, sewage and solid, hazardous, toxic and other wastes by major sources;
f. Integrated management of port safety, health, security and environmental protection; and
g. Involvement of the private sector/business sector as a partner in ICM.
SEC. 5. National Government Responsibilities. All concerned national agencies shall support the implementation of the ICM programme and promote best practices, some of which are indicated in Section 5, that fall within their respective mandates. Specifically, the Department of Agriculture, Department of Interior and Local Government, Department of Transportation and Communications, Department of Finance, Department of Tourism, Department of Health, Department of Education, Department of Foreign Affairs, Department of Science and Technology, Department of Energy, Department of National Defense, National Economic and Development Authority, Department of Social Welfare and Development, Department of Labor and Employment, and the Department of Justice shall identify, prepare, and provide policy guidance, and technical and resource assistance to DENR and LGUs in the implementation of the National and Local ICM Programmes and enforcement of relevant coastal and marine policies and regulations. These agencies shall directly consult with relevant LGUs in the development and implementation of national plans and projects affecting coastal and marine areas in their respective localities.
SEC. 6. LGU Responsibilities for ICM. Consistent with the provisions of the Local Government Code (Republic Act 7160) and the national sustainable development policies and strategies, LGUs shall act as the frontline agencies in the formulation, planning and implementation of ICM programmes in their respective coastal and marine areas. The ICM programmes of the LGU shall be in line with the National ICM Programme and prepared in consultation with the relevant stakeholders. LGUs shall update their respective ICM programmes to reflect changing social, economic and environmental conditions and emerging issues. LGUs shall furnish the DENR, within one month from adoption, with copies of their ICM programmes and all its subsequent amendments, modifications and revisions. LGUs shall mobilize and allocate necessary personnel, resources and logistics to effectively implement their respective ICM programmes.
Barangays shall be directly involved with municipal and city governments in prioritizing coastal issues and identifying and implementing solutions. Municipal and city governments shall consider ICM as one of their regular functions. Provincial governments may provide technical assistance, training, enforcement and information management in support to municipal and city ICM. Inter-LGU collaboration shall be maximized in the conduct of activities related to sustaining the country’s coastal and marine resources.
SEC. 7. Roles of the Civil Society and the Corporate and Private Sectors. In the development and implementation of the ICM programme, the NGOs, civic organizations, academe, people’s organizations, the private and corporate sectors and other concerned stakeholder groups shall be engaged in activities such as planning, community organizing, research, technology transfer, information sharing, investment, and training programs.
Section 8. Supporting Mechanisms and Activities. The following activities shall be undertaken in support of the implementation of ICM programmes:
a. ICM Education. The Department of Education shall integrate ICM into the primary and secondary education curricula and/or subjects (i.e. Science, Biology, Sibika, History, among others), including textbooks, primers and other educational materials, basic principles and concepts of conservation, protection and management of country’s marine resources;
b. ICM Training Programme for LGUs. DENR and DILG, through the Local Government Academy and building upon existing ICM expertise and experiences, shall develop and provide ICM training programmes to LGUs;
Environmental and Natural Resource Accounting And Valuation For ICM Planning. NEDA and the National Statistics Coordination Board shall incorporate coastal and marine resource accounting in the national and regional accounts; and
d. Coastal And Marine Environmental Information Management System. DENR shall oversee the establishment and maintenance of a coastal and marine environmental information management system and network, in collaboration with other concerned national government agencies, institutions and LGUs.
SEC. 9. Monitoring of ICM Progress. The DENR shall prepare and submit an annual progress report on the National ICM Programme to the President. LGUs shall submit annual progress reports on local ICM implementation to the DENR.
SEC. 10. Budget Appropriation for ICM. All relevant national government agencies and LGUs shall allocate adequate funds for the development and implementation of ICM programmes from their existing budgets. In subsequent budget proposals, the concerned offices and units shall appropriate budget for ICM programme development and implementation including continuing ICM training and education.
SEC. 11. Other Funding Options. National government agencies may source local and international grants and donations in support of ICM implementation and in accordance with relevant laws. The Land Bank of Philippines, Development Bank of the Philippines, People’s Credit and Finance Corporation and other relevant financial institutions shall formulate and identify loan and financing mechanisms that will be made available to support local ICM programmes, including alternative livelihood projects for small-scale fishers and cooperatives.
LGUs, particularly coastal cities/municipalities, as may be allowed under relevant laws, may raise revenues and secure funds to implement their ICM programme through:
1. Enactment of Tax Ordinances;
2. Allocation of funds from the Internal Revenue Allotment, subject to the approval of their legislative councils;
3. Utilization of shares in the development of national wealth;
4. Secure loans, grants and donations as may be applicable;
5. Privatization of local government-owned enterprises;
6. Adopt, as appropriate, user-fee schemes for waste management, exclusive use of coastal water areas for commercial and leisure purposes and other environmental services;
Public-Private Partnerships Schemes under the Build Operate Transfer Law (Republic Act 6957 as amended by Republic Act 7718) and related laws;
8. Arrange credit financing schemes; and
9. Raise income through Inter-LGU cooperation.
SEC. 12. Repealing Clause. All previous executive and administrative issuances inconsistent with this Order are hereby repealed or amended accordingly.
SEC. 13. Effectivity Clause. This Order shall be effective immediately.
DONE in the City of Manila, this 6th day of June, in the year of Our Lord, Two Thousand and Six.
(Sgd.) GLORIA MACAPAGAL-ARROYO
By the President:
(Sgd.) EDUARDO R. ERMITA