[Please note: The K to 12 program was launched on April 24, 2012, and the content of this briefer is outdated. Please view our new entries and more comprehensive information on the K to 12 Basic Education Program through www.gov.ph/k-12]
Briefer prepared by the Department of Education, November 2, 2010
Salient Points on the Enhanced K to 12 Basic Education Program
What is K to 12?
- K to 12 means Kindergarten and the 12 years of elementary and secondary education.
Kindergarten refers to the 5-year old cohort that takes a standardized kinder curriculum.
Elementary education refers to primary schooling that involves six or seven years of education
Secondary education refers to high school.
How are we planning to implement the K to 12 program?
After considering various proposals and studies, the model that is currently being proposed by DepEd is the K-6-4-2 Model. This model involves Kindergarten, six years of elementary education, four years of junior high school (Grades 7 to 10) and two years of senior high school (Grades 11 to 12). The two years of senior high school intend to provide time for students to consolidate acquired academic skills and competencies.
Features of K 6-4-2
(1) Kindergarten and 12 years of quality basic education is a right of every Filipino, therefore they must be and will be provided by government and will be free.
(2) Those who go through the 12 years cycle will get an elementary diploma (6 years), a junior high school diploma (4 years), and a senior high school diploma (2 years).
(3) A full 12 years of basic education will eventually be required for entry into tertiary level education (entering freshmen by SY 2018-2019 or seven years from now).
- An open and consultative process will be adopted in the development and implementation of K to 12.
- Change is two-fold: (a) curriculum enhancement and (b) transition management.
What is Senior High School?
- 2 years of in-depth specialization for students depending on the occupation/career track they wish to pursue
- Skills and competencies relevant to the job market
- The 2 years of senior HS intend to provide time for students to consolidate acquired academic skills and competencies.
- The curriculum will allow specializations in Science and Technology, Music and Arts, Agriculture and Fisheries, Sports, Business and Entrepreneurship.
What is the proposed implementation plan of DepEd?
Phases of Implementation:
(1) Universal kindergarten will be offered starting SY 2011-2012.
(2) DepEd will begin unclogging the basic education curriculum in SY 2012-2013.
(3) The enhanced 12-year curriculum will be implemented starting with incoming Grade 1 students of SY 2012-2013.
(4) Incoming freshmen of SY 2012-2013 will be the first beneficiary of a free Senior High School education that will be made available by DepEd in public schools beginning SY 2016-2017. Electives to be offered in Senior HS (arts, music, tech-voch..etc)
In implementing the K-6-4-2 proposal, DepEd will take into account the issues and concerns of all stakeholders, including the high school graduates before 2016. This will be done through regional consultations to begin early 2011. The mechanics and other details of the transition plan will be threshed out with HEIs in coordination with CHED, TESDA and other critical stakeholders.
Why add two more years?
- To decongest and enhance the basic education curriculum
- To provide better quality education for all
- The Philippines is the only remaining country in Asia with a 10-year basic education program
- K to 12 is not new. The proposal to expand the basic education dates back to 1925.
- Studies in the Philippines have shown that an additional year of schooling increases earnings by 7.5%.
- Studies validate that improvements in the quality of education will increase GDP growth by 2% to 2.2%.
- Minus 2 instead of plus 2 for those families who cannot afford a college education but still wish to have their children find a good paying job. Right now, parents spend for at least 4 years of college to have an employable child. In our model, parents will not pay for 2 years of basic education that will give them an employable child. In effect, we are saving parents 2 years of expenses. The plan is not “Plus 2 years before graduation” but “Minus 2 years before work
- To inspire a shift in attitude that completion of high school education is more than just preparation for college but can be sufficient for a gainful employment or career.
How much will this cost?
- The immediate cost for the program will not be needed until 2016 when the first year of the two additional years is implemented.
- Meanwhile, we will continue to close the resource gaps in basic education – the President ordered DepEd to its close resource gaps in 2 years.
At this time, we estimate the total funding requirement to procure all needed resources at P150 billion for:
152,569 new classrooms
103,599 more teachers
95.6 million more books
13.2 million seats
What will society gain from K to 12
- K to 12 will facilitate an accelerated economic growth.
- K to 12 will facilitate mutual recognition of Filipino graduates and professionals in other countries.
- A better educated society provides a sound foundation for long-term socio-economic development.
- Several studies have shown that the improvements in the quality of education will increase GDP growth by as much as 2%. Studies in the UK, India and US show that additional years of schooling also have positive overall impact on society.
Are private schools obliged to follow?
- While we enjoy the support of private school associations, we are yet to discuss with them the implementation of the program.
Where are we at now?
- Insufficient mastery of basic competencies is common due to a congested curriculum. The 12 year curriculum is being delivered in 10 years.
- High school graduates are younger than 18 years old and lack basic competencies and maturity. They cannot legally enter into contracts and are not emotionally mature for entrepreneurship / employment.
- Other countries view the 10-year education cycle as insufficient.
K to 12 Education Vision
Graduates of Enhanced K to 12 Basic Education Program will:
- Acquire mastery of basic competencies.
- Be more emotionally mature.
- Be socially aware, pro-active, involved in public and civic affairs.
- Be adequately prepared for the world of work or entrepreneurship or higher education.
- Be legally employable with potential for better earnings.
- Be globally competitive.
- Every graduate of the Enhanced K to 12 Basic Education Program is an empowered individual who has learned, through a program that is rooted on sound educational principles and geared towards excellence, the foundations for learning throughout life, the competence to engage in work and be productive, the ability to coexist in fruitful harmony with local and global communities, the capability to engage in autonomous critical thinking, and the capacity to transform others and one’s self.