Naninindigan pa rin po tayo sa ipinangako nating pagbabago sa edukasyon: ang gawin itong sentral na estratehiya sa pamumuhunan sa pinakamahalaga nating yaman: ang mamamayang Pilipino. Sa K to 12, tiwala tayong mabibigyang-lak
as si Juan dela Cruz upang mapaunlad—hindi lamang ang kanyang sarili at pamilya—kundi maging ang buong bansa.
– Pangulong Benigno S. Aquino III
The K to 12 Program covers Kindergarten and 12 years of basic education (six years of primary education, four years of Junior High School, and two years of Senior High School [SHS]) to provide sufficient time for mastery of concepts and skills, develop lifelong learners, and prepare graduates for tertiary education, middle-level skills development, employment, and entrepreneurship.
Every Filipino child now has access to early childhood education through Universal Kindergarten. At 5 years old, children start schooling and are given the means to slowly adjust to formal education.
Research shows that children who underwent Kindergarten have better completion rates than those who did not. Children who complete a standards-based Kindergarten program are better prepared, for primary education.
Education for children in the early years lays the foundation for lifelong learning and for the total development of a child. The early years of a human being, from 0 to 6 years, are the most critical period when the brain grows to at least 60-70 percent of adult size..[Ref: K to 12 Toolkit]
In Kindergarten, students learn the alphabet, numbers, shapes, and colors through games, songs, and dances, in their Mother Tongue.
Examples, activities, songs, poems, stories, and illustrations are based on local culture, history, and reality. This makes the lessons relevant to the learners and easy to understand.
Students acquire in-depth knowledge, skills, values, and attitudes through continuity and consistency across all levels and subjects.
Discussions on issues such as Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR), Climate Change Adaptation, and Information & Communication Technology (ICT) are included in the enhanced curriculum.
Students are able to learn best through their first language, their Mother Tongue (MT). Twelve (12) MT languages have been introduced for SY 2012-2013: Bahasa Sug, Bikol, Cebuano, Chabacano, Hiligaynon, Iloko, Kapampangan, Maguindanaoan, Meranao, Pangasinense, Tagalog, and Waray. Other local languages will be added in succeeding school years.
Aside from the Mother Tongue, English and Filipino are taught as subjects starting Grade 1, with a focus on oral fluency. From Grades 4 to 6, English and Filipino are gradually introduced as languages of instruction. Both will become primary languages of instruction in Junior High School (JHS) and Senior High School (SHS).
After Grade 1, every student can read in his or her Mother Tongue. Learning in Mother Tongue also serves as the foundation for students to learn Filipino and English easily.
Subjects are taught from the simplest concepts to more complicated concepts through grade levels in spiral progression. As early as elementary, students gain knowledge in areas such as Biology, Geometry, Earth Science, Chemistry, and Algebra. This ensures a mastery of knowledge and skills after each level.
For example, currently in High School, Biology is taught in 2nd Year, Chemistry in 3rd Year, and Physics in 4th Year. In K to 12, these subjects are connected and integrated from Grades 7 to 10. This same method is used in other Learning Areas like Math.
Senior High School is two years of specialized upper secondary education; students may choose a specialization based on aptitude, interests, and school capacity. The choice of career track will define the content of the subjects a student will take in Grades 11 and 12. SHS subjects fall under either the Core Curriculum or specific Tracks.
There are seven Learning Areas under the Core Curriculum. These are Languages, Literature, Communication, Mathematics, Philosophy, Natural Sciences, and Social Sciences. Current content from some General Education subjects are embedded in the SHS curriculum.
Each student in Senior High School can choose among three tracks: Academic; Technical-Vocational-Livelihood; and Sports and Arts. The Academic track includes three strands: Business, Accountancy, Management (BAM); Humanities, Education, Social Sciences (HESS); and Science, Technology, Engineering, Mathematics (STEM).
Students undergo immersion, which may include earn-while-you-learn opportunities, to provide them relevant exposure and actual experience in their chosen track.
After finishing Grade 10, a student can obtain Certificates of Competency (COC) or a National Certificate Level I (NC I). After finishing a Technical-Vocational-Livelihood track in Grade 12, a student may obtain a National Certificate Level II (NC II), provided he/she passes the competency-based assessment of the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA).
NC I and NC II improves employability of graduates in fields like Agriculture, Electronics, and Trade.
In SY 2012-2013, there are 33 public high schools, public technical-vocational high schools, and higher education institutions (HEIs) that have implemented Grade 11. This is a Research and Design (R&D) program to simulate different aspects of Senior High School in preparation for full nationwide implementation in SY 2016-2017. Modeling programs offered by these schools are based on students’ interests, community needs, and their respective capacities.
After going through Kindergarten, the enhanced Elementary and Junior High curriculum, and a specialized Senior High program, every K to 12 graduate will be ready to go into different paths – may it be further education, employment, or entrepreneurship.
Every graduate will be equipped with:
Program implementation in public schools is being done in phases starting SY 2012–2013. Grade 1 entrants in SY 2012–2013 are the first batch to fully undergo the program, and current 1st year Junior High School students (or Grade 7) are the first to undergo the enhanced secondary education program. To facilitate the transition from the existing 10-year basic education to 12 years, DepEd is also implementing the SHS and SHS Modeling.
Private schools craft their transition plans based on: (1) current/previous entry ages for Grade 1 and final year of Kinder, (2) duration of program , and most importantly, (3) content of curriculum offered.
Where will the additional two years be added?
The two years will be added after the four-year high school program. This will be called Senior High School.
Why are we implementing 12 years of basic education and not 11 years?
How will K to 12 help in ensuring employment for our graduates?
What would be the assurance that K to 12 graduates will be employed?
The K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum is in accordance with the College Readiness Standards of CHED, which sets the skills and competencies required of K to 12 graduates who intend to pursue higher education.
What will happen to colleges and universities during the initial nationwide implementation of Senior High School in SY 2016–2017 and SY 2017–2018?
To manage the initial implementation of the K to 12 Program and mitigate the expected multi-year low enrolment turnout for colleges, universities, and Technical-Vocational Institutions (TVI) starting SY 2016-2017, DepEd shall engage in partnerships with them to use their existing facilities and teaching staff. This ensures that during the transition period, the reduction in enrollment in these colleges and universities may be offset.
Where will Senior High School be implemented?
Existing public schools may implement Senior High School. DepEd will be in partnerships with CHED, TESDA, and private schools to use their facilities, especially for the transition years. In addition, new standalone Senior High Schools will be built.
How will DepEd recruit enough teachers for SY 2016-2017 onwards?
What are the guidelines for graduates of Science, Mathematics, Statistics, Engineering, and other specialists in subjects with a shortage of qualified Licensure Examination for Teachers (LET) applicants?
What are the guidelines for hired technical-vocational course graduates, faculty of Higher Education Institutions, and practitioners?
How will K to 12 affect the college curriculum?
The college General Education Curriculum is being revised. It will have fewer units with the removal of unnecessary remediation as K to 12 graduates adhere to the College Readiness Standards. With K to 12, the college curriculum will comprise of a year’s worth of General Education subjects and at least two years of major subjects.
Will K to 12 change TESDA Technical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) programs?
No. TESDA will continue to offer TVET programs. Students may also be eligible for NC I and NC II through Junior High School and Senior High School, respectively.
What is my role in supporting this program?
What will happen to the curriculum? What subjects will be added and removed?
For Senior High School, what will happen if majority of our students want to specialize in Agriculture and only one is interested to take Mathematics or Business? How will this be accommodated?
These schools will remain special schools with an enriched curriculum for Grades 7 to 12.
What will happen to multi-grade teaching?
Multi-grade teaching will continue, and will use the K to 12 curriculum.
The Alternative Learning System (ALS) age requirement is only 16 years old for the high school equivalency test. Will this change to 18? Students might want to turn to ALS if they can save two years of formal school education costs.
The ALS is based on the existing 10-year basic education curriculum. When the new 12-year curriculum will be in place, ALS will likewise be revised.
Will K to 12 enhance programs targeted to indigenous people, Muslim learners, and people with special needs?
Yes, the K to 12 curriculum was designed to address diverse learner needs, and may be adapted to fit specific learner groups.
Is Kindergarten a pre-requisite for entering Grade 1?
Yes. Republic Act No. 10157, or the Kindergarten Education Act, institutionalizes Kindergarten as part of the basic education system and is a pre-requisite for admission to Grade 1. Public schools will continue to admit children who have not taken Kindergarten into Grade 1 until SY 2013-2014.
Is there an overlap between the daycare program of the LGUs and DepEd Kindergarten?
There is no overlap. Daycare centers of the LGUs take care of children aged 4 and below, whereas the DepEd Kindergarten program is for five-year-old children.
Should schools now prepare permanent records for Kindergarten students?
Yes. Although the assessment of readiness skills of students in Kindergarten is not academically driven, a good measure of the child’s ability to cope with formal schooling is needed for future learning interventions.
Who is in charge of Kindergarten teacher compensation? The LGU or DepEd?
For SY 2012-2013, 12 Mother Tongue languages are being used for MTB-MLE. More languages, such as Ivatan, will be added in succeeding years.
Which mother tongue will be used in multi-cultural areas?
Will teachers be burdened by additional teaching load due to the K to 12 Program?
There will be no additional workload due to the K to 12 Program. The Magna Carta for Public School Teachers provides that teachers should only teach up to six hours a day.
Will teacher salary increase as a result of the K to 12 Program?
How will DepEd prepare its non-teaching staff and officials for smooth transition and implementation of the K to 12 Program?
DepEd lacks resources to address its current input shortages. With K to 12 and its added resource needs, how will this be addressed?
I like this program but I’m worried about additional cost to families. How will government respond to this difficulty?
Won’t this be another avenue for corruption? How can you ensure that funds will be released and used properly?